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RBC Dominion Securities Inc. and RBC Direct Investing Inc.

Related and connected issuers

Canadian provincial and territorial securities laws require securities registered firms such as RBC Dominion Securities Inc. ("RBC DS") and RBC Direct Investing Inc. ("RBC DI") when they trade in or advise with respect to their own securities or securities of certain issuers to which they, or certain other parties related to them, are related or connected, to do so only in accordance with particular disclosure and other rules. Further, these rules require dealers, prior to trading with or advising their clients, to inform clients of the relevant relationships and connections with the issuer of the securities. Clients should refer to the applicable provisions of the relevant securities laws for the particulars of these rules or consult with a legal advisor.

  • An issuer of securities is "related" to RBC DS or RBC DI if, through the ownership of, or direction or control over voting securities, RBC DS or RBC DI exercises a controlling influence over that issuer, or that issuer exercises a controlling influence over RBC DS or RBC DI, or the same third party exercises a controlling influence over both RBC DS or RBC DI and the issuer. RBC DS is an indirect subsidiary of Royal Bank of Canada ("RBC"). RBC DI is a wholly owned subsidiary of RBC. RBC is a reporting issuer under securities laws and is a related issuer of RBC DS and RBC DI.
  • An issuer is "connected" to RBC DS or RBC DI if due to indebtedness or other relationships a prospective purchaser of securities of the connected issuer might question RBC DS or RBC DI’s independence from the issuer.

For lists of related and connected issuers of RBC DS or RBC DI, refer to Related Issuers List , Connected Issuers List - Equity , Connected Issuers List - Debt , RBC GAM-managed Funds , RBC GAM-managed Alternative Funds , RBC iShares , www.iShares.com/us .

In carrying on business as an investment dealer, RBC DS or RBC DI may from time to time with respect to securities of RBC or other related or connected issuers: (a) act as principal or agent for the purchase or sale of securities for clients of RBC DS or RBC DI, respectively; and (b) act as an underwriter for securities sold to clients of RBC DS.


Other relationships

In addition to being the principal shareholder of RBC DS or RBC DI, RBC is the principal shareholder of the following: Royal Mutual Funds Inc., RBC Phillips, Hager & North Investment Counsel Inc., RBC Private Counsel (USA) Inc., RBC Global Asset Management Inc., RBC Global Asset Management (U.S.) Inc., RBC Capital Markets Corporation, Phillips, Hager & North Investment Funds Ltd., Bluebay Asset Management plc, BonaVista Asset Management Inc. and RBC Securities Australia Pty Limited. In addition, RBC holds a non-controlling interest in Sky Investment Counsel Inc. Certain directors and officers of RBC DS are also directors and officers of one or more of the above affiliates.

RBCDS is a founding shareholder of Aequitas Innovations Inc. ("Aequitas"), the parent company of Aequitas Neo Exchange Inc. ("Aequitas Neo Exchange"). An employee of RBCDS is the Chair of the Aequitas Board of Directors. As a member (participant) of Aequitas Neo Exchange, RBCDS may, consistent with "best execution" and applicable regulatory requirements, route your orders to the Aequitas Neo Exchange in the normal course. As a Canadian registered investment dealer, RBCDS is bound by both internal and regulatory requirements in respect of the handling of client orders in a manner that provides each client order with the most advantageous execution terms available. With this in mind, RBCDS will, consistent with its best execution obligation, consider as part of its order routing protocol execution opportunities on the Aequitas Neo Exchange. RBCDS will also act as a designated market maker on Aequitas Neo Exchange. In that role, RBCDS will make a commitment to maintain a two-sided market for specific securities, as assigned by Aequitas Neo Exchange.


Other services, dual registration and outside business activities

RBC DS or RBC DI may also obtain from or provide to RBC and its subsidiaries, other management, administrative, referral or other services in connection with its ongoing business. Individuals registered with RBC DS or RBC DI may also be registered with another related registered company and provide services to clients of that company. These relationships are subject to legislative and industry regulatory requirements that impose restrictions on dealings between related registered companies and/or individuals that are dually registered with related registered companies and such restrictions are intended to minimize the potential for conflicts of interest resulting from these relationships. Further, industry regulatory requirements generally do not permit individuals registered with RBC DS or RBC DI to be employed by, participate in, or accept compensation from any other person, outside the scope of his/her relationship with RBC DS or RBC DI, unless he/she has the prior approval of RBC DS or RBC DI. RBC DS and RBC DI have adopted internal policies and procedures that supplement the regulatory requirements, including its policies on privacy and confidentiality of information.


Securities related activities

RBC DS is an investment dealer engaged in securities trading and brokerage activities and providing investment banking, investment management, financial and financial advisory services. RBC DS and its affiliates may also provide a broad range of normal course financial products and services to its customers (including, but not limited to banking, credit derivative, hedging and foreign exchange products and services).

RBC DS complies with applicable securities laws as they relate to the trading of securities while in possession of material non-public information and further acknowledges that it has in place information barriers to protect the unauthorized transmission of this information to employees of RBC and its affiliates who do not have a legitimate need to know this information.

If you would like additional information concerning these documents, please contact your investment advisor or account representative.

Of the Related Issuers List, Finance Corporation of Bahamas Limited, RBC Capital Trust, RBC Capital Trust II and RBC Subordinated Notes Trust are affiliates of RBC DS. Other than RBC and Finance Corporation of Bahamas Limited, each of the listed issuers is an investment vehicle whose securities may be distributed by RBC DS and in certain circumstances RBC DS and/or its affiliates may have the power to direct voting of or have direct or indirect beneficial ownership of more than 20% of the securities of such listed issuers.


RBC Capital Markets shared premises disclosure

RBC Capital Markets is the global brand name for the capital markets business of Royal Bank of Canada and its affiliates, including the institutional division of RBC DS in Canada. Within RBC Capital Markets, RBC DS may share premises with the following Canadian financial institutions: Royal Bank of Canada and RBC Investor Services Trust. You are reminded that securities purchases may fluctuate in value and unless you are otherwise informed, securities purchases from or through RBC DS are not insured by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Quebec Deposit Insurance Board or any other government deposit insurer and are not guaranteed by any Canadian financial institution or Schedule III bank.